It was September 6, 1910. The news of the Gyeongsul national defeat (August 26) belatedly reached Gurye, South Jeolla Province, where Maecheon Hwang Hyeon (1855-1910) lived in seclusion.
At this time, his younger brother (Hwang Won , 1870-1944 ) even mentioned his real name to his older brother (Maecheon), saying, “The country has collapsed, but why is someone as popular as ‘someone Gong (某公)’ not dying?” Rebuked. Maecheon grinned.
“If I can’t do that, how can I say that others don’t die? On the day the country perishes, everyone must die.”
Two days later, in the early morning of September 9, Maecheon suddenly took up a brush and wrote four ‘poems of death’ and a suicide note (‘Affair of Martyrdom’).
I don’t have the will to die…
First of all, look at ‘Sunguk’s Byun’.
“I have no obligation to die. It’s just that it’s been 500 years since the country has been training scholars, and not even one of them has been hit by the day the country collapsed… If no one dies, how can it be lamentable?” (<Maecheonjip>)
Yes. Maecheon was a scholar who had not held a public office until he was 56 years old. Therefore, he presupposes that ‘as a scholar of justice, he has no obligation to die’. But soon, a wise saying comes out. “How lamentable it would be if a country that had lasted for 500 years collapsed, and there was not a single scholar who died along with it,” he said. He said, “I will not betray the good conscience I received from heaven above, and I will not abandon the contents of the books I usually read below… Please do not grieve too much.” What about the four desperate poems left by Maecheon?
“… I tried to end my life several times, but I couldn’t. .” (1 count) “… (Emperor’s) edict will be no more (詔勅從今無復有) Filling a piece of paper with a thousand tears (琳琅一紙淚千絲).” (Episode 2) “… The Mugunghwa world is ruined. (槿花世界已沈淪)… It’s just hard to pretend to be someone who knows how to write.忠)… .” (number 4)
Among them, the phrases ‘It is difficult for intellectuals (those who know how to write)’ and ‘(Self-determination martyrdom) is the only saint, but not loyalty’ stand out. Along with the contents of the will, this verse of the dying poem is the key.
■There will be those who feel sorry for Maecheon
‘s self-determination and martyrdom. What would it have been like if he had not died and embarked on the path of the independence movement?
Wait a minute at this point… . Yoo In-seok (1842-1915), a Confucian scholar and anti-Japanese righteous soldier, suggested three ways for the intellectuals (seonbi) of the time to cope with the national catastrophe. It is called ‘Cheobyeon Samsa (處變三事)’.
“Samsa Cheobyeon raised righteous armies to defeat the enemy (geogisocheong, 擧義掃淸), secluded or exiled to protect the Confucian way (beggisugu, 去之守舊), and end his life to protect fidelity ( (Yoo In-seok’s <Uiamjip>)
Among the three, Maecheon chose ‘self-determination’, or ‘self-determination’. As an intellectual who read a book, he shouldered the responsibility of ruining his country.
He also lived the life of an unknown scholar, so he did not mention any grandiose ‘loyalty’. However, he said that he chose death in order to achieve ‘humanity’, the highest value of a scholar who studied Confucianism.
But is ‘self-determination martyrdom’ really that easy?
Maecheon, who left a suicide note and a suicide note until dawn, drank the opium used to treat a chronic disease (疝症, lower abdominal pain) in a bottle of Deodeok Soju.
But he didn’t die soon. Hearing an urgent report from the eldest son (Amhyeon Hwang , 1880-1946 ), his younger brother (Won Hwang) belatedly ran to Maecheon and tried to put the antidote in his mouth. Maecheon shook his brother’s hand and overturned his medicine bowl.
“At this point in the world, scholars should die rightfully. If I don’t die today, everything I hear and see every day will be offensive to my heart, and I will dry up and become extremely weak. I’d rather die quickly than live so hard.”
Maecheon laughed while falling into a coma and rebuked herself for fearing death in an instant.
“It seems that dying is not easy. When he drank the poison he put his mouth on and off three times. Are you saying I was so stupid?”
In the end, Maecheon died at the age of 56, Chunchu, on the morning of the 10th, a full day after drinking alcohol.
■ “It seems that my baby’s heart has weakened”
Among the desperate poems, the phrase “I tried to end my life several times” caught my eye.
It seems that Maecheon decided to commit suicide right after the Eulsa Treaty in 1905.
<Maecheon Yarok> introduces those who committed suicide right after the Eulsa Treaty, with bitter resentment.
For example, Hong Man-sik (1842-1905), a former commander, heard the news of the Eulsa Treaty at Yeoju Yeoju, Gyeonggi-do.
When Hong Man-sik was equipped with a medical crown, the children who noticed the smell cried and dissuaded him, saying, “How about posting an appeal?”
But “no advice is of any use now. What can I do if I only have to say a lot?”
On November 4, 1905, Chungjeonggong Min Yeong-hwan (1861-1905) also committed suicide by stabbing himself.
<Maecheonyarok> tells a tearful anecdote at this point.
In other words, Min Yeong-hwan, who decided to commit suicide, made a childlike expression while rubbing his mother’s (Mr. Seo’s) cheek. When her son, who was in his mid-40s, was acting childishly, her mother grinned and said, “My baby must have lost his mind. Go and sleep,” she whispered.
After leaving his mother’s room, Min Young-hwan entered the room where his wife, who was pregnant with their three children, was there. Min Yeong-hwan told her wife, “The contemplative said that he would have five children, but she now has twins!” She said she didn’t know what she meant. She was only smiling.
Min Yeong-hwan, who was separated from his family in this way, suddenly cried out loud as he went down the island. Take a look at the ‘Note to the People’ left by Min Young-hwan.
“The disgrace of the nation and the disgrace of the people have come here… Min Yeong-hwan wants to die once to repay Hwang Eun-eun and apologize to our 20 million fellow countrymen and brothers… Young-hwan will die, but he will not die, and he will help you in the nine heavens.”
Maybe it’s similar to Maecheon’s ‘Death Stool’. Two people who did not have the loyalty to die (Hwang Hyeon in Maecheon) or the reason to apologize (Min Young-hwan) said they would shoulder the responsibility as intellectuals or
■“How can I treat Min Young-hwan in the future?”
Special Officer Jo Byeong-se (1827-1905) followed Min Young
The guests stopped him, but Jo Byung-se swallowed the opium, saying, ‘If I don’t die, how will I treat the children of Min Yeong-hwan on the day of my death? . At that time, Lee Yong-jik (1852-1932), the son-in-law of Jo Byung-se, said, “The Minister of Korea took his own life for the sake of the country. How can you (Japanese) interfere? Are you trying to humiliate me even if I die?”
The letter Cho Byeong-se wrote while serving his country to deliver to legations in each country is tearful.
“Constructors… Have pity on the weak country… Restore our right to independence. Jo Byung-se will repay the favor even after he dies. I am dizzy and out of breath, and I do not know what else to say.”
■“What are the officials who eat national records?”
Maecheon seems to have decided to follow in the footsteps of Hong Man-sik, Min Yeong-hwan, and Cho Byeong-se as they wrote articles about their self-determination.
See the letter sent to Maecheon’s close friend and independence activist Park Hang-rae (1853-1933) in June 1906.
“Except for those who are faithful… Not one of the other large and small bureaucrats… No one expressed their will. Geumsa (Park Hang-rae’s pen name) was like that, but what can other brave officials say?”
Maecheon pointed out to Park Hang-rae, who served as governor of Jaseong-bu, Gurye-gun, and Yeosan-gun, “Why doesn’t the official who is eating the national record kill himself?” He felt sorry for the situation where even the officials who should be responsible for bringing the country to that point were sitting on their toes.
Maecheon seems to have judged that no matter how much he raises his voice, there will be no more patriots like Min Yeong-hwan, Jo Byeong-se, and Hong Man-sik.
■Marking those who have not yet died as martyrs
Maecheon’s ‘five poems’ left after the Eulsa Treaty reflect such impatience.
‘Five Love Poems’ is a poem written in imitation of the Eight Love Poems (a poem of mourning for eight incarnated persons of the Tang Dynasty) by Du Fu (712-770), a poet of the Tang Dynasty.
A condolence recited by three people, including Min Yeong-hwan, Hong Man-sik, and Cho Byeong-se, who died by suicide immediately after the Eulsa Treaty, and two people, including the deceased patriot Lee Kun-chang (1852-1898), a Confucian scholar and righteous army commander Choi Ik-hyeon (1833-1906), who had not yet passed away. it’s poetry
Min Young-hwan, Hong Man-shik, and Jo Byung-se are the same, but why did Lee Kun-chang and Choi Ik-hyeon be included?
“… The reason I mentioned Choi Ik-hyeon while composing the poem was because I wanted him too. Also, the characters now are so insignificant that they commemorate Lee Geon-chang (already dead).
” That’s why I think I included Lee Geon-chang, who is already dead.
what about the future However, Myeonam Choi Ik-hyeon has a possibility. That’s why I included the three letters of his name.
Indeed, Myeonam Choi Ik-hyeon was arrested while carrying out an anti-Japanese righteous army movement even at the age of 74, and died while in exile in Tsushima.
It was as Maecheon expected. A poem written by Maecheon for Choi Ik-hyeon (‘Weeping for Myeonam Teacher·哭勉菴先生)’ is considered a masterpiece.
“… Even if there are mountains in my homeland, only empty shadows are blue. pitiful Where shall I bury your bones? (可憐埋骨向何方)”
■Gyeongsulgukchi’s first martyr
Now that Choi Ik-hyeon has left, who will remain? It was none other than Maecheon Hwanghyeon, he himself.
Although he has never held a government post in his life, he decided to shoulder the responsibility of ruining his country just because he was a scholar who studied.
However, Maecheon was not as lonely as he thought. Like Maecheon, those who chose self-determination, saying, ‘It only makes sense if there is not one person dying on the day the country collapsed’ shone like stars.
His best friend, Kim Taek-yeong (1850-1927), collected and published Maecheon’s poems and prose in 1911. Among them, the first martyr was Hong Beom-sh
Hong Beom-shik died on August 29, when the sad news of his country was destroyed. After the Eulsa Treaty, Hong Bum-sik always shed tears, saying, “Min Choong-jeong-gong (Min Young-hwan) did a good job.” Hong Bum-shik, who left a will to his family, is said to have written eight letters on the wall: ‘Gukpa-gun Mangbulsa-wi (國破君亡不死何爲 · The country has collapsed and the king is gone, what should I do without dying)’ on the wall.
The ripple effect of Hong Beom-sik’s self-determination martyrdom could not be exhausted in writing. It was Kim Ji-seop (1885-1928), who was the clerk of the Geumsan Court, who delivered Hong Bum-shik’s will to his son (Hong Myeong-hee). Kim Ji-seop, who later became a member of the Heroic Corps, is the main character of the Nijubashi (Double Bridge) bombing incident (January 1924), the entrance to the residence of the emperor in Tokyo. Song Cheol (1894-1968), who witnessed Hong Beom-shik’s suicide, exiled to the Americas and led the independence movement. The son of Hong Beom-shik is Byeokcho Hong Myeong-hee (1888-1968), the author of the novel Im Kkeok-jeong. Hong Beom-sik’s suicide note touches the heart.
“My son… We must reclaim the lost country. Even if you die, don’t pro-Japanese, and don’t insult me even in the distant future.”
It can be said that Hong Beom-sik is the case of ‘the faithfulness of the one who ate the national record’ that Maecheon so emphasized.
ik (1871-1910), the governor of Geumsan-gun.
■Kim Seok-jin (1843~1910), who served as a eunuch who committed suicide by seppuku and sacrificed himself on the road,
also committed suicide by poisoning. After the Gyeongsul National Rule, the Japanese imperialists launched a coup plan by giving titles to 76 government officials and Confucian scholars and giving them gifts and money. Kim Seok-jin resolutely refused the favors of the Japanese imperialists, took the deadly medicine that had already been prepared, and committed suicide.
Kim Seok-jin’s martyrdom caused a sensation. Foreign ministers and merchants also praised Kim Seok-jin as the only loyal subject.
Lee Man-do (1842-1910), who served as a public official, passed away after fasting for 24 days after the Gyeongsul national invasion. In his desperate poem, Lee Man-do said, “I deceived myself and deceived others… Is he still alive… He said, expressing the sense of helplessness that he could not do anything after the national defeat. After 20 days of fasting, “Tomorrow I will meet the Jade Emperor… My emaciated body went out and sat under the eaves… I feel comfortable,” he said, becoming aloof.
Jang Tae-soo (1841-1910), who served as a military officer and Dongbu Seungji, died on a hunger strike after seeing his three sons captured by Japanese military police. Former Saheonbu Ji-pyeong Jeong Jae-gun (1843-1910), former Seung-ji Lee Jae-yoon (1849-1911), Confucian scholar Kim Ji-su (1845-1911), former Cheomjeong Jeong Dong-sik ( ? ~?), Confucian scholar Oh Gang-pyo (1843-1910), Confucian scholar Lee Geun-ju (1860-1910), Confucian scholar Kim Young-sang (1836-1910), Confucian scholar Jo Jang-ha (1847-1910), etc.
The last person Kim Taek-young married as a self-determined martyr in <Maecheonjip> is ‘Banseong’, who only revealed his last name without a name.
‘Banseong’ refers to the eunuch Ban Ha-gyeong (? ~1910 ). Ban Ha-gyeong was a person who served as Seungjeonsaek (the 4 rank officials of the eunuch department who conveyed words to the king and queen’s closest aides) in the year of King Gojong. Hakyung Ban voluntarily resigned after the conclusion of the Eulsa Treaty and went into hiding in Paju, Gyeonggi Province. In the face of Gyeongsul National Violence, he committed disembowelment on the roadside, saying, “Even though I am a eunuch, how can I die in a warm room when the country is ruined?”
Confucian scholars who were said to have learned, and eunuchs who were treated contemptuously by officials who ate national records… . It can be seen that Maecheon Hwang Hyeon’s ‘road to the country’ was not so lonely. Although not introduced in <Maecheon House>, Kim Do-hyeon (1852-1914), the leader of the Righteous Army, committed suicide after his mother’s스포츠토토 death in 1914, leaving behind a suicide note and a death poem at Gwaneodae in Yeonghae, Gyeongsangbuk-do. He chose the path of ‘pilgrimage to the sea’ by throwing himself into the sea and dying.
“… Tears shed after losing their country, but even their parents are gone… The white water is just right for me to take care of myself.”
■Responsibility for the duty of the person who reads it
It is difficult to count the number of people who have built a sense of loyalty through self-determination and martyrdom while going through the Eulsa Treaty and the Gyeongsul National Violence.
There was a study introducing 57 specific names, and I also saw a paper that said there were as many as 90 people.
It’s just a pity that I couldn’t capture everyone’s story due to my lack of gamnyang.
Again, the will of the two strikes the heart.
“The day the country collapsed, not a single person… How can it be lamentable if no one dies?” (Maecheon Hwang Hyeon)
“Min Yeong-hwan died once… I want to apologize to our 20 million brothers and sisters… ”(Chungjeonggong Min Yeong-hwan)
This is what Maecheon said, ‘those who read the text died for their country in order to serve as human beings.’ After being arrested for leading the 10,000 years movement, he was martyred in prison.) (Professor Park Dong-wook of Hanyang University and Oh Je-ho, public relations officer at the Ministry of Patriots and Veterans Affairs,
provided help and materials for this article.